Kaymakli Underground City: Cappadocia’s Subterranean Wonder

Kaymakli Underground city

Hello, intrepid travelers and history buffs! Today, let’s descend into the mysterious depths of Kaymakli Underground City, one of the most awe-inspiring and fascinating sites in the ethereal landscape of Cappadocia, Turkey. This subterranean marvel, intricately carved from the region’s soft volcanic rock, is a historical and cultural time capsule that offers tantalizing clues to a life lived underground for centuries.

The Historical Context of Kaymakli Underground City

Before delving into the specifics of Kaymakli, it’s essential to understand the broader historical context. Cappadocia has been home to various civilizations, from ancient Anatolian tribes to the Byzantine Empire. Each left a unique imprint on the land, but it was the early Christians who maximized the use of underground cities like Kaymakli to escape persecution from the Roman Empire.

The Lore of Kaymakli Underground City

Kaymakli is not just an archaeological marvel but a riddle wrapped in enigma and cloaked in layers of history. Built initially in the 8th–7th centuries B.C., the city underwent successive expansions by various civilizations, including the Phrygians, Persians, and early Christians. Initially used for storage and as a refuge against invasions, the city later became a full-fledged haven for early Christians.

Kaymakli Underground city

The Mysterious Design of Underground City

What strikes you as you descend into the depths is the sheer ingenuity of design. The underground city consists of eight interconnected levels, of which only four are open to the public. These layers are a complex maze of tunnels connecting living spaces, storage areas, chapels, wineries, and even stables. An entire community thrived up to 80 meters beneath the Earth’s surface, and the architecture supports this complex lifestyle.

Architectural Nuances of Underground City

You’ll find yourself navigating through narrow, sloping passages and low ceilings that sometimes require you to crouch or even crawl. The rooms are intricately carved to serve specific functions. Circular stone doors could be rolled to block passages, acting as a security mechanism against invaders. The ventilation shafts not only provided fresh air but also doubled as wells, revealing a keen understanding of civil engineering.

The Life Underground

Kaymakli Underground city

Though the thought of life underground may sound bleak, the inhabitants of Kaymakli devised ingenious systems to make their subterranean existence comfortable. They had areas designated for cooking, where the smoke was carefully channeled out through meticulously designed chimneys. The community even had its agrarian system, with storage rooms for food and special compartments for fermenting wine. The remnants of earthen pots, kitchen utensils, and religious artifacts offer an intimate glimpse into a day in the life of this hidden civilization.

Religion and Spirituality of Kaymakli Underground City

One of the most enchanting aspects of Kaymakli is its spiritual life. The early Christians built chapels and religious halls, with some walls still showing the faint etchings of religious drawings and symbols. The silence that envelops these spaces even today offers a glimpse into the deep spirituality that must have sustained the community through their challenging life underground.

Kaymakli Underground city

The labyrinthine paths within Kaymakli can be bewildering, so it’s recommended to take a guided tour. A well-informed guide can provide invaluable insights into the historical and cultural significances of each section and alert you about the more challenging parts of the tour, making your visit both educational and safe.

Local Legends and Myths about Kaymakli Underground City

While the historical data surrounding Kaymakli is rich and extensive, the local folklore adds another layer to this intriguing destination. Locals speak of hidden chambers and mysterious tunnels that are yet to be discovered. Some believe that the underground city is a gateway to other realms or dimensions. While these stories are not backed by scientific evidence, they certainly add a layer of mystique to Kaymakli.

Uncover Hidden Chambers of Kaymakli Underground City

Kaymakli Underground city

As you meander through the city, you’ll come across some chambers whose purpose remains unknown. These rooms spark numerous theories—from secret meeting places of early Christian congregations to storerooms for invaluable treasures. The more you explore, the more you’ll appreciate the complexities and secrets that are yet to be uncovered.

Eco-System and Sustainability

What’s particularly fascinating about Kaymakli is how it sustains a balanced eco-system. The strategic planning of waste disposal, water storage, and air ventilation reflects an acute understanding of sustainability. While modern society is just coming to terms with sustainable living, the inhabitants of Kaymakli mastered it centuries ago.

Social Hierarchy and Governance

The intricate layout of the city suggests a well-organized social system. Larger, more intricate rooms are believed to belong to families of higher social standing or community leaders. Governance was equally crucial to maintaining a harmonious life, and it’s believed that the community had established rules and rituals to keep their society orderly.

Archaeological Findings in Kaymakli Underground City

Over the years, numerous archaeological digs have unearthed artifacts that give us insight into the daily life in Kaymakli. From primitive tools to more advanced forms of pottery and jewelry, these objects narrate an untold story of a complex society that thrived under the Earth.

Health and Medicine

In such a confined environment, healthcare was of the utmost importance. Archaeologists have discovered rudimentary medical tools and herbs preserved in jars, suggesting that basic forms of medicine were practiced to keep the community healthy.

Security Measures in Kaymakli Underground City

Security Measures in Kaymakli Underground City

Security was paramount for the people of Kaymakli. Beyond the stone doors and hidden entrances, guards were positioned at crucial points within the city. Secret passages allowed for quick escapes, and there are theories that a long tunnel connects Kaymakli to Derinkuyu, another underground city, as a last-resort escape route.

Family Life

Families lived in close quarters, fostering a strong sense of community. Spaces were designated for communal gatherings, storytelling, and religious ceremonies. Childhood toys carved out of stone and wood have been found in some chambers, revealing the universal need for recreation and leisure, no matter the circumstances.

Must-See Sections of Kaymakli Underground City

  • The Wine Cellar: A testament to the region’s long history of viticulture.
  • The Chapel: Reflects the deep spirituality of its past inhabitants.
  • Ventilation Shafts: Ingeniously designed to serve multiple purposes.
  • The Millstone Door: An excellent example of early security measures.

Photography Tips When You Visit Kaymakli Underground City

Kaymakli is a photographer’s delight but comes with its challenges, mainly due to low light conditions. It is advisable to carry a tripod for long exposure shots and use lenses with wide apertures to capture as much light as possible.

If you are into history, You should read our blogs about Gobekli Tepe, Karahan Tepe and Boncuklu Tarla!


Is it suitable for children?
Yes, but supervise them closely due to the uneven terrain and narrow passages.

Is it claustrophobic?
Some passages can be narrow and low. If you’re claustrophobic, consult with your guide about alternative routes within the city.

Final Thoughts of Mine

Kaymakli Underground City is more than a place; it’s a journey back in time and a tribute to human ingenuity. It challenges our perceptions, enriches our understanding of history, and provides a spellbinding adventure. Don’t miss the chance to explore this awe-inspiring wonder when you visit Cappadocia.

How to Get There and Practical Information

Located about 20 kilometers from Göreme, the tourist center of Cappadocia, Kaymakli is accessible via multiple means:

  • Public Transport: Though available, buses are less frequent and could be inconvenient.
  • Tour Groups: Various tour operators include Kaymakli in their Cappadocia itineraries.
  • Private Car: Renting a car offers the flexibility to explore at your own pace.

Remember to dress comfortably and stay hydrated. Kaymakli is open from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., and the entry fee is around 50 Turkish Lira.

Why Kaymakli is a Must-Visit

Kaymakli stands as an awe-inspiring testament to human resilience, ingenuity, and the will to survive against all odds. It challenges our perceptions of what ‘home’ can mean and offers a mesmerizing narrative etched into the very bowels of the earth.

Kaymakli is not just an underground city; it’s a living, breathing story waiting to be discovered. It’s a journey back in time, a history lesson, an architectural marvel, and a spiritual retreat all rolled into one. So, when you find yourself in the mystical landscapes of Cappadocia, make sure Kaymakli is at the top of your must-visit list. If you are into underground cities, you must visit Must see Underground cities of Cappadocia.

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How to Get to Kaymakli Underground City from Nevsehir Airport?

Getting to Kaymakli Underground City from Nevşehir Kapadokya Airport is relatively straightforward, and you have a variety of options to choose from. Here are some of the most common methods:

Private Transfer:

The most convenient and comfortable way to reach Kaymakli from Nevşehir Kapadokya Airport is by arranging a private transfer. Several local companies offer this service, and it generally takes around 40-50 minutes to reach Kaymakli.


Taxis are readily available at the airport and offer a quick and straightforward way to get to Kaymakli. The distance between the airport and Kaymakli is approximately 30-35 km, depending on the route. The journey typically takes 40-50 minutes, and costs can vary but generally range from 300 to 500 Turkish Lira.

Car Rental:

If you prefer the freedom to explore Cappadocia at your own pace, renting a car is an excellent option. Car rental agencies are available at the airport. Driving to Kaymakli is straightforward, and you can use GPS or a mapping app for directions. Parking facilities are available near the underground city. Here is the google maps link of the route.

Public Transport:

Public transport is the least convenient option, mainly due to limited schedules and the need for multiple transfers. You’d generally need to take a bus or shuttle into Nevşehir city center first and then take another local bus to Kaymakli. This option is more time-consuming and could take up to 2 hours or more, including waiting times.

Pre-arranged Tours:

Many tour operators in Cappadocia offer excursions that include a visit to Kaymakli Underground City along with other attractions. These tours often provide pickup and drop-off services from the airport or your hotel.

How to Get to Kaymakli Underground City from Goreme?

Getting to Kaymakli Underground City from Göreme, a popular tourist hub in Cappadocia, Turkey, is relatively easy thanks to the area’s well-connected transport routes and a variety of travel options. Here are some common ways to make the journey:

Private Transfer:

One of the most convenient ways to reach Kaymakli is by booking a private transfer. You can arrange this through local tour operators or car service companies. The drive takes approximately 30 minutes, and it’s a comfortable way to explore the region without the hassle of public transport.


Taxis are readily available in Göreme and can be a quick option for getting to Kaymakli Underground City. The distance is around 20-25 km, and the journey usually takes about 30 minutes.

Car Rental:

If you’d like to explore Cappadocia at your own pace, renting a car is an excellent option. Several car rental agencies operate in Göreme. The drive to Kaymakli is quite straightforward, taking around 30 minutes. You can use GPS or a mapping app to help navigate. Parking is usually available near the entrance to the underground city. Here is the goole maps link of the route from Goreme to Kaymakli.

Public Transport:

Public buses also operate between Göreme and Kaymakli, although the service might be infrequent and could require transfers, typically at Nevşehir or Uçhisar. The journey could take up to an hour or more, depending on waiting times and the route taken. Tickets are generally quite affordable.

Guided Tours:

Many visitors opt for guided tours, which usually include transportation, a guide, and sometimes even meals. Tour operators often offer packages that include visits to Kaymakli along with other attractions in Cappadocia. These tours can be a hassle-free way to experience the region and are especially beneficial if you’re short on time or prefer a structured itinerary.

Shuttle Services:

Some hotels and guesthouses in Göreme offer shuttle services to popular tourist attractions like Kaymakli. It’s worth checking in advance whether this service is available and what the costs are.

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